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em Avaliação da Aprendizagem
Gilberto Teixeira (Prof. Doutor FEA/USP)
Thomas A. Angelo and K. Patricia Cross have written Classroom Assessment
Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. The book has helped faculty across the
World to gain valuable insights about how well students are learning what faculty intend to be teaching in the classroom. The discussion of academic outcomes assessment has focused
most on the assessment of student learning in many programs such as
undergraduates and graduate programs. However, we readily acknowledge that
the classroom is still the most basic meeting ground between faculty and
students and continues to be a critical arena in which learning takes place.
The classroom assessment techniques proposed by Angelo and Cross
have many advantages.
I ) They are formative in nature: they are unlike final exams or major term papers in that they provide faculty with feedback on student learning while the teaching/ l earning
relationship is still intact, so that we as faculty can yet intervene to help this
semester's (as opposed to next semester's) students learn more completely.
2) They are speedy: they often consume just a few minutes of classroom
time to administer and can be read easily and quickly by faculty.
3) They re flexible: they can be tailored to the unique and specific concerns of
4) They can be anonymous for students (although they need
not be): the aim of classroom assessment is not necessarily to grade
individual student work or to provide individual students with feedback
on their performance; rather, the aim is to provide the instructor with
feedback on student learning. Anonymity may prove useful in freeing
students to express not only what they do understand but also what they
do NOT understand.
5) Classroom assessment activities can themselves be positive learning
activities for students; they can be developed to promote (and not just measure)
writing skills or critical thinking skills and to increase student motivation
to take themselves and their learning more seriously.
The author suggest that new users of classroom assessment
techniques will be most successful if they use only those techniques that
appeal to their intuition and professional judgement, if they start with
techniques that are quick and easy to use in a classroom setting in which
the faculty member and the students are comfortable, if they only use
classroom assessment techniques that they have previously tried on
themselves, if they allow more time to complete the task the first time
than might seem necessary, and if they "close the loop" by reporting
back to students what they as faculty have learned from student feedback
and how that information can be used to improve student learning.
In their book,Angelo and Cross recommend that faculty interested in using
classroom assessment techniques begin with one of the five techniques
The One-Minute Paper (also called the Minute Paper and Half-Sheet
Description: The instructor stops the class two or three minutes
early and asks students to respond briefly in writing to some variation of
the following two questions: What was the most important thing you learned
during this class (today)? What important question remains unanswered?
(Or, what are you still confused about?)
Purpose: This technique allows faculty to assess the match between
their instructional goals and students' perceptions of these goals and
their own learning. Further, because the instructor knows what students
perceive their own learning problems to be, the likelihood that the
students will receive answers to those questions during the next class
period is enhanced. The task asks students to evaluate information and to
engage in recall.
Suggestions for Use: The task works well in small and large
classes. It can be used frequently in courses that present students with
large amounts of new information on a regular basis.
Using Information: Often it is sufficient for the instructor
simply to tabulate the responses, making note of any especially useful
The Muddiest Point
Description: The instructor asks students to jot down a quick
response to the following question: What was the muddiest point in [the
lecture, the homework assignment, the reading, the film, etc.]'?
Purpose: This technique provides speedy feedback on what students
find least clear or most confusing. Presumably, this information helps
faculty decide what to emphasize (more) and how much time to spend on
topics. Students must also quickly assess what they do not understand and
must be able to articulate their confusion (which is itself a complex and
Suggestions for Use: This technique can be used frequently in
courses that present students with large amounts of new information on a
regular basis, and it should be presented at the end of a
lecture/assignment. The task should be used sparingly in classes that
emphasize integrating, synthesizing, and evaluating information. (Often
student responses to the muddiest point task consist of words or phrases.)
Using Information: Often it is sufficient to group responses
according to the particular muddy point. An alternative is to group points
according to whether they involve facts, concepts, principles, and so
The One-Sentence Summary
Description: The instructor asks students to answer the questions
about a given topic: Who does what to whom, when, where, how, and why'?
Then the student is asked to transform the responses to those questions
into a single, grammatical sentence.
Purpose: Faculty gauge the extent to which students can summarize
a large amount of information concisely and completely. Students are
constrained by the rules of sentence construction and must also think
creatively about the content learned. Students pr actice the ability to
condense information into smaller, interrelated bits that are more easily
processed and recalled.
Suggestions for Use: The task works well when there is information
that can be summarized in declarative form, including historical events,
political processes, the plots of stories and novels, chemical reactions,
Using Information: Assess answers to each of the initial questions
separately. Often it is easiest to grade responses to each of the
questions as inadequate (incorrect), adequate, and more than adequate.
A matrix with the questions as the columns and the three grading categories
as the rows can quickly alert the faculty member to whether students are
more proficient at the whos and whats rather than the hows and whys.
Description: The instructor asks students to paraphrase part of a
lesson for a specific audience and purpose, using their own words. This is
especially useful for pre-professional students who will be asked in their
careers to translate specialized information into language that clients
or customers can understand.
Purpose: This technique allows faculty to examine students'
understanding of information and their ability to transform it into a form
that can be meaningful to specific audiences other than the student and
instructor. This task is more complex than simple paraphrasing (or
summary) in that the faculty member directs the student to speak/write to
a particular audience and purpose.
Suggestions for Use: The task works well when students are
learning topics or concepts that they will later be expected to
communicate to others. When this is not the case (perhaps in general
education classes in the humanities), the faculty member might
want to ask students to write to other students in the class or to other
freshmen at CMU.
Using Information: Answers can be grouped into four sets --
confused, minimal, adequate, and excellent. Then examine responses within
and across the four evaluative categories for accuracy, suitability for
the intended audience, and effectiveness in fulfilling the assigned
purpose. An alternative is to circle the clearest (best) point made by
each student and the worst (muddiest) point. Then the responses from
students can be grouped to find patterns of clarity and confuslon.
Description: After students have been introduced to some
principle, generalization, theory, or procedure, the instructor passes out
index cards and asks students to write down at least one possible,
real-world application for what they have just learned.
Purpose: This technique allows faculty to determine quickly
whether students understand the applications of what they have learned.
Students are forced to link new information with prior knowledge.
They may also have an increased interest in the material covered if they are asked
to speak immediately to the ways in which this new material can be
applied in realworld settings.
Suggestions for Use: Most classes cover material that can/should
be applied. The technique is often used in the social sciences, in
technical fields, and in pre-professional courses.
Using Information: Answers can be separated into four groups --
great, acceptable, marginal, and not acceptable. Responses might be
discussed in the next class, with some attention given to factors that
argue for and against sets of responses.